Employment Services


A Synthesis of Research

February, 2009
David H. Greenberg, Victoria Deitch, Gayle Hamilton

Most welfare programs seek to ensure that poor families have adequate income while at the same time encouraging self-sufficiency. Based on studies of 28 programs involving more than 100,000 sample members, this synthesis compares the costs, benefits, and returns on investment of six welfare program strategies – from the perspectives of participants, government budgets, and society as a whole.


Sustaining a Vision of Welfare Reform Based on Personal Change, Work Preparation, and Employer Involvement

March, 1998
Susan Gooden

Six-Year Impacts on Parents and Children from the Minnesota Family Investment Program

July, 2005
Lisa Gennetian, Cynthia Miller, Jared Smith

While positive effects on most parents’ earnings and income faded after six years, young children in some of the most disadvantaged families were still performing better in school than their counterparts in a control group. And, for the most disadvantaged parents, MFIP seems to have created a lasting “leg up” in the labor market.


Implementation, Two-Year Impacts, and Costs of the Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) Prisoner Reentry Program

August, 2009
Cindy Redcross, Dan Bloom, Gilda Azurdia, Janine Zweig, Nancy Pindus

A random assignment study shows that participants in CEO’s transitional jobs program were less likely to be convicted of a crime, to be admitted to prison for a new conviction, or to be incarcerated for any reason in prison or jail over the first two years. The program also had a large but short-lived impact on employment.

Working Paper
November, 2007
Dan Bloom, Cindy Redcross, Janine Zweig, Gilda Azurdia

After one year, CEO’s transitional jobs program generated a large but short-lived increase in employment for ex-prisoners. A subgroup of recently released prisoners showed positive effects on recidivism: They were less likely to have their parole revoked, to be convicted of a felony, and to be reincarcerated than the control group.


Background, Program Models, and Evaluation Evidence

February, 2010

Transitional jobs programs provide temporary, wage-paying jobs and other services to help individuals who have difficulty succeeding in the regular labor market. In the context of a new federal initiative to support and study these programs, this paper describes what is known about transitional jobs and offers ideas for program design and research.


The Jobs-Plus Experience in Public Housing Developments

September, 2002
Linda Yuriko Kato

Through extensive ethnographic interviews with staff and residents of two Jobs-Plus housing developments in Seattle and St. Paul, this report explains how a range of social and personal issues characteristic of largely immigrant public housing residents can render conventional employment and support services ineffective.